Collaboration with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans nuclear explosions by everyone, everywhere: on the Earth's surface, in the atmosphere, underwater and underground. In signing and ratifying the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a State joins a group of like-minded countries that are dedicated to strengthening the international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament regime, thereby contributing to international peace and security. Albania (link 1) has Signed the Treaty on 27 September 1996 and ratified on 23 April 2003 (link2). The Secure Signatory Account (SSA) was established on 11 September 2003, with two institutes:
- Institute of Geosciences (IGEO)
- Institute of Applied Nuclear Physics (IANP)
Albania National Data Centre (NDC-AL)
The CTBTO supports States in the establishment of National Data Centers (NDCs) where data are received and managed. States receive assistance to install the necessary hardware and software. The CTBTO also helps establish communication links between the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna and the NDCs.
Albanian National Data Centre (NDC-AL), although generally involving the role and the contribution of two major and unique research institutions in the country, Institute of Geosciences (IGEO) and the Institute of Applied Nuclear Physics (IANP), is physically located in IGEO, tightly related to the Department of Seismology and the National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC). The immediate collaboration steps followed the ratification of the treaty, by Albania:
April 14 – 17, 2003
The first site survey has been completed for NDC establishment Different actors were involved: Albanian Foreign Ministry, Academy of Sciences of Albania, ex-Institute of Seismology, ex-Institute of Nuclear Physic and the National Telecommunication Regulator Office.
Ex-Institute of Seismology (the actual Department of Seismology in IGEO), was designated as the primary facility to be used for NDC establishment. This institution was licensed by National Telecommunication Regulator Office to use the Satellite communication in order to establish a secure data retrieval through GCI-VSAT link to IDC.
September 9-12, 2003
Visit of Albanian delegation to IDC, in Vienna. First training on GCI-VSAT communication and NDC operation, for Albanian specialists assigned to accomplish this duty.
Connection to IDC has been planned through GCI-VSAT
Data shared by IDC and IMS:
- SHI- seismic, Hydroacoustic and Infrasound data
- RN- Radionuclide data
The actual National Authority is Polytechnic University of Tirana, Institute of Geosciences (IGEO).
Principal Point of Contact (PPOC), since 2012, is Dr. Edmond Dushi
Albania is one the recipient countries of Component 1 of EU Joint Action V Project, which aims at strengthening member States’ monitoring and verification capabilities through the provision of training, technical expertise and Capacity-building System equipment. The respective NV was sent to the PM of Albania in July 2013. As a response, the CTBTO received the related request on 19 March 2014.
Law, No.9014, Act. Dt.20.02.2003, Approved on Dt.20.02.2003, Official Notebook No.19, pp:537
Albania ratifies Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
Albania has deposited its instrument of ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) with the Secretary-General of the United Nations on 23 April 2003, bringing the total number of ratifications to 99. Eighteen of the 22 States in the Eastern Europe geographical region have now ratified the Treaty. The CTBT bans any nuclear weapon test explosion in any environment. Drafted at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, and adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996, the Treaty was opened for signature on 24 September 1996 at the United Nations headquarters in New York. To date, 99 States have deposited their instruments of ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. To enter into force, however, the Treaty must be signed and ratified by the 44 States that formally participated in the work of the 1996 session of the Conference on Disarmament and that possess nuclear power or research reactors. Thirty-one of these States have ratified the Treaty